Friday, August 16, 2019

Ethiopians Abused of Trafficking, Exploitation, Torture on Gulf Migration Route HRW

Trafficking, Exploitation, Torture, Abusive Prison Conditions
Addis Ababa) – Ethiopians undertaking the perilous journey by boat across the Red Sea or Gulf of Aden face exploitation and torture in Yemen by a network of trafficking groups, Human Rights Watch said today. They also encounter abusive prison conditions in Saudi Arabia before being summarily forcibly deported back to Addis Ababa. Authorities in Ethiopia, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have taken few if any measures to curb the violence migrants face, to put in place asylum procedures, or to check abuses perpetrated by their own security forces.
A combination of factors, including unemployment and other economic difficulties, drought, and human rights abuses have driven hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to migrate over the past decade, traveling by boat over the Red Sea and then by land through Yemen to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia and neighboring Gulf states are favored destinations because of the availability of employment. Most travel irregularly and do not have legal status once they reach Saudi Arabia.
“Many Ethiopians who hoped for a better life in Saudi Arabia face unspeakable dangers along the journey, including death at sea, torture, and all manners of abuses,” said Felix Horne, senior Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch. “The Ethiopian government, with the support of its international partners, should support people who arrive back in Ethiopia with nothing but the clothes on their back and nowhere to turn for help.”
Human Rights Watch interviewed 12 Ethiopians in Addis Ababa who had been deported from Saudi Arabia between December 2018 and May 2019. Human Rights Watch also interviewed humanitarian workers and diplomats working on Ethiopia migration-related issues.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates as many as 500,000 Ethiopians were in Saudi Arabia when the Saudi government began a deportation campaign in November 2017. The Saudi authorities have arrested, prosecuted, or deported foreigners who violate labor or residency laws or those who crossed the border irregularly. About 260,000 Ethiopians, an average of 10,000 per month, were deported from Saudi Arabia to Ethiopia between May 2017 and March 2019, according to the IOM, and deportations have continued.
An August 2 Twitter update by Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said that police had arrested 3.6 million people, including 2.8 million for violations of residency rules, 557,000 for labor law violations, and 237,000 for border violations. In addition, authorities detained 61,125 people for crossing the border into Saudi Arabia illegally, 51 percent of them Ethiopians, and referred more than 895,000 people for deportation. Apart from illegal border crossing, these figures are not disaggregated by nationality.
Eleven of the 12 people interviewed who had been deported had engaged with smuggling and trafficking networks that are regionally linked across Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia’s semi-autonomous Puntland state, the self-declared autonomous state of Somaliland, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Traffickers outside of Ethiopia, particularly in Yemen, often used violence or threats to extort ransom money from migrants’ family members or contacts, those interviewed told Human Rights Watch. The 12th person was working in Saudi Arabia legally but was deported after trying to help his sister when she arrived illegally.
Those interviewed described life-threatening journeys as long as 24 hours across the Gulf of Aden or the Red Sea to reach Yemen, in most cases in overcrowded boats, with no food or water, and prevented from moving around by armed smugglers.
“There were 180 people on the boat, but 25 died,” one man said. “The boat was in trouble and the waves were hitting it. It was overloaded and about to sink so the dallalas [an adaptation of the Arabic word for “middleman” or “broker”] picked some out and threw them into the sea, around 25.”
Interviewees said they were met and captured by traffickers upon arrival in Yemen. Five said the traffickers physically assaulted them to extort payments from family members or contacts in Ethiopia or Somalia. While camps where migrants were held capture were run by Yemenis, Ethiopians often carried out the abuse. In many cases, relatives said they sold assets such as homes or land to obtain the ransom money.
After paying the traffickers or escaping, the migrants eventually made their way north to the Saudi-Yemen border, crossing in rural, mountainous areas. Interviewees said Saudi border guards fired at them, killing and injuring others crossing at the same time, and that they saw dead bodies along the crossing routes. Human Rights Watch has previously documented Saudi border guards shooting and killing migrants crossing the border.
“At the border there are many bodies rotting, decomposing,” a 26-year-old man said: “It is like a graveyard.”
Six interviewees said they were apprehended by Saudi border police, while five successfully crossed the border but were later arrested. They described abusive prison conditions in several facilities in southern Saudi Arabia, including inadequate food, toilet facilities, and medical care; lack of sanitation; overcrowding; and beatings by guards.
Planes returning people deported from Saudi Arabia typically arrive in Addis Ababa either at the domestic terminal or the cargo terminal of Bole International Airport. Several humanitarian groups conduct an initial screening to identify the most vulnerable cases, with the rest left to their own devices. Aid workers in Ethiopia said that deportees often arrive with no belongings and no money for food, transportation, or shelter. Upon arrival, they are offered little assistance to help them deal with injuries or psychological trauma, or to support transportation to their home communities, in some cases hundreds of kilometers from Addis Ababa.
Human Rights Watch learned that much of the migration funding from Ethiopia’s development partners is specifically earmarked to manage migration along the routes from the Horn of Africa to Europe and to assist Ethiopians being returned from Europe, with very little left to support returnees from Saudi Arabia.
“Saudi Arabia has summarily returned hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to Addis Ababa who have little to show for their journey except debts and trauma,” Horne said. “Saudi Arabia should protect migrants on its territory and under its control from traffickers, ensure there is no collusion between its agents and these criminals, and provide them with the opportunity to legally challenge their detention and deportation.”
All interviews were conducted in Amharic, Tigrayan, or Afan Oromo with translation into English. The interviewees were from the four regions of SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region), Oromia, Amhara, and Tigray. These regions have historically produced the bulk of Ethiopians migrating abroad. To protect interviewees from possible reprisals, pseudonyms are being used in place of their real names. Human Rights Watch wrote to the Ethiopian and Saudi governments seeking comment on abuses described by Ethiopian migrants along the Gulf migration route, but at the time of writing neither had responded.
Migration routes between Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia
© Human Rights Watch
Dangerous Boat Journey
Most of the 11 people interviewed who entered Saudi Arabia without documents described life-threatening boat journeys across the Red Sea from Djibouti, Somaliland, or Puntland to Yemen. They described severely overcrowded boats, beatings, and inadequate food or water on journeys that ranged from 4 to 24 hours. These problems were compounded by dangerous weather conditions or encounters with Saudi/Emirati-led coalition naval vessels patrolling the Yemeni coast.
“Berhanu” said that Somali smugglers beat people on his boat crossing from Puntland: “They have a setup they use where they place people in spots by weight to keep the boat balanced. If you moved, they beat you.” He said that his trip was lengthened when smugglers were forced to turn the boat around after spotting a light from a naval vessel along the Yemeni coast and wait several hours for it to pass.
Since March 26, 2015, Saudi Arabia has led a coalition of countries in a military campaign against the Houthi armed group in Yemen. As part of its campaign the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition has imposed a naval blockade on Houthi-controlled Yemeni ports, purportedly to prevent Houthi rebels from importing weapons by sea, but which has also restricted the flow of food, fuel, and medicine to civilians in the country, and included attacks on civilians at sea. Human Rights Watch previously documented a helicopter attack in March 2017 by coalition forces on a boat carrying Somali migrants and refugees returning from Yemen, killing at least 32 of the 145 Somali migrants and refugees on board and one Yemeni civilian. 
Exploitation and Abuses in Yemen
Once in war-torn Yemen, Ethiopian migrants said they faced kidnappings, beatings, and other abuses by traffickers trying to extort ransom money from them or their family members back home.
This is not new. Human Rights Watch, in a 2014 report, documented abuses, including torture, of migrants in detention camps in Yemen run by traffickers attempting to extort payments. In 2018, Human Rights Watch documented how Yemeni guards tortured and raped Ethiopian and other Horn of Africa migrants at a detention center in Aden and worked in collaboration with smugglers to send them back to their countries of origin. Recent interviews by Human Rights Watch indicate that the war in Yemen has not significantly affected the abuses against Ethiopians migrating through Yemen to Saudi Arabia. If anything, the conflict, which escalated in 2015, has made the journey more dangerous for migrants who cross into an area of active fighting.
Seven of the 11 irregular migrants interviewed said they faced detention and extortion by traffickers in Yemen. This occurred in many cases as soon as they reached shore, as smugglers on boats coordinated with the Yemeni traffickers. Migrants said that Yemeni smuggling and trafficking groups always included Ethiopians, often one from each of Oromo, Tigrayan, and Amhara ethnic groups, who generally were responsible for beating and torturing migrants to extort payments. Migrants were generally held in camps for days or weeks until they could provide ransom money, or escape. Ransom payments were usually made by bank transfers from relatives and contacts back in Ethiopia.
“Abebe” described his experience:
When we landed… [the traffickers] took us to a place off the road with a tent. Everyone there was armed with guns and they threw us around like garbage. The traffickers were one Yemeni and three Ethiopians – one Tigrayan, one Amhara, and one Oromo…. They started to beat us after we refused to pay, then we had to call our families…. My sister [in Ethiopia] has a house, and the traffickers called her, and they fired a bullet near me that she could hear. They sold the house and sent the money [40,000 Birr, US $1,396].
“Tesfalem”, said that he was beaten by Yemenis and Ethiopians at a camp he believes was near the port city of Aden:
They demanded money, but I said I don’t have any. They told me to make a call, but I said I don’t have relatives. They beat me and hung me on the wall by one hand while standing on a chair, then they kicked the chair away and I was swinging by my arm. They beat me on my head with a stick and it was swollen and bled.
He escaped after three months, was detained in another camp for three months more, and finally escaped again.
“Biniam” said the men would take turns beating the captured migrants: “The [Ethiopian] who speaks your language beats you, those doing the beating were all Ethiopians. We didn’t think of fighting back against them because we were so tired, and they would kill you if you tried.”
Two people said that when they landed, the traffickers offered them the opportunity to pay immediately to travel by car to the Saudi border, thereby avoiding the detention camps. One of them, “Getachew,” said that he paid 1,500 Birr (US $52) for the car and escaped mistreatment.
Others avoided capture when they landed, but then faced the difficult 500 kilometer journey on foot with few resources while trying to avoid capture.
Dangers faced by Yemeni migrants traveling north were compounded for those who ran into areas of active fighting between Houthi forces and groups aligned with the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition. Two migrants said that their journey was delayed, one by a week, the other by two months, to avoid conflict areas. 
Migrants had no recourse to local authorities and did not report abuses or seek assistance from them. Forces aligned with the Yemeni government and the Houthis have also detained migrants in poor conditions, refused access to protection and asylum procedures, deported migrants en masse in dangerous conditions, and exposed them to abuse. In April 2018, Human Rights Watch reported that Yemeni government officials had tortured, raped, and executed migrants and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa in a detention center in the southern port city of Aden. The detention center was later shut down.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) announced in May that it had initiated a program of voluntary humanitarian returns for irregular Ethiopian migrants held by Yemeni authorities at detention sites in southern Yemen. IOM said that about 5,000 migrants at three sites were held in “unsustainable conditions,” and that the flights from Aden to Ethiopia had stalled because the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition had failed to provide the flights the necessary clearances. The coalition controls Yemen’s airspace.
Saudi Arabia/Yemen border area
© Human Rights Watch
Crossing the Border; Abusive Detention inside Saudi Arabia
Migrants faced new challenges attempting to cross the Saudi-Yemen border. The people interviewed said that the crossing points used by smugglers are in rural, mountainous areas where the border separates Yemen’s Saada Governorate and Saudi Arabia’s Jizan Province. Two said that smugglers separated Ethiopians by their ethnic group and assigned different groups to cross at different border points.
Ethiopian migrants interviewed were not all able to identify the locations where they crossed. Most indicated points near the Yemeni mountain villages Souq al-Ragu and ‘Izlat Al Thabit, which they called Ragu and Al Thabit. Saudi-aligned media have regularly characterized Souq al-Ragu as a dangerous townfrom which drug smugglers and irregular migrants cross into Saudi Arabia.
Migrants recounted pressures to pay for the crossing by smuggling drugs into Saudi Arabia. “Abdi” said he stayed in Souq al-Ragu for 15 days and finally agreed to carry across a 25 kilogram sack of khat in exchange for 500 Saudi Riyals (US$133). Khat is a mild stimulant grown in the Ethiopian highlands and Yemen; it is popular among Yemenis and Saudis, but illegal in Saudi Arabia.
“Badessa” described Souq al-Ragu as “the crime city:”
You don’t know who is a trafficker, who is a drug person, but everybody has an angle of some sort. Even Yemenis are afraid of the place, it is run by Ethiopians. It is also a burial place; bodies are gathered of people who had been shot along the border and then they’re buried there. There is no police presence.
Four of the eleven migrants who crossed the border on foot said Saudi border guards shot at them during their crossings, sometimes after ordering them to stop and other times without warning. Some said they encountered dead bodies along the way. Six said they were apprehended by Saudi border guards or drug police at the border, while five were arrested later.
“Abebe” said that Saudi border guards shot at his group as they crossed from Izlat Al Thabit:
They fired bullets, and everyone scattered. People fleeing were shot, my friend was shot in the leg…. One person was shot in the chest and killed and [the Saudi border guards] made us carry him to a place where there was a big excavator. They didn’t let us bury him; the excavator dug a hole and they buried him.
Berhanu described the scene in the border area: “There were many dead people at the border. You could walk on the corpses. No one comes to bury them.”
Getachew added: “It is like a graveyard. There are no dogs or hyenas there to eat the bodies, just dead bodies everywhere.”
Two of the five interviewees who crossed the border without being detained said that Saudi and Ethiopian smugglers and traffickers took them to informal detention camps in southern Saudi towns and held them for ransom. “Yonas” said they took him and 14 others to a camp in the Fayfa area of Jizan Province: “They beat me daily until I called my family. They wanted 10,000 Birr ($349). My father sold his farmland and sent the 10,000 Birr, but then they told me this isn’t enough, we need 20,000 ($698). I had nothing left and decided to escape or die.” He escaped.
Following their capture, the migrants described abusive conditions in Saudi governmental detention centers and prisons, including overcrowding and inadequate food, water, and medical care. Migrants also described beatings by Saudi guards.
Nine migrants who were captured while crossing the border illegally or living in Saudi Arabia without documentation spent up to five months in detention before authorities deported them back to Ethiopia. The three others were convicted of criminal offenses that included human trafficking and drug smuggling, resulting in longer periods in detention before being deported.
The migrants identified about 10 prisons and detention centers where they were held for various periods. The most frequently cited were a center near the town of al-Dayer in Jizan Province along the border, Jizan Central Prison in Jizan city, and the Shmeisi Detention Center east of Jeddah, where migrants are processed for deportation.
Al-Dayer had the worst conditions, they said, citing overcrowding, inadequate sanitation, food and water, and medical care. Yonas said:
They tied our feet with chains and they beat us while chained, sometimes you can’t get to the food because you are chained. If you get chained by the toilet it will overflow and flow under you. If you are aggressive you get chained by the toilet. If you are good [behave well], they chain you to another person and you can move around.
Abraham had a similar description:
The people there beat us. Ethnic groups [from Ethiopia] fought with each other. The toilet was overflowing. It was like a graveyard and not a place to live. Urine was everywhere and people were defecating. The smell was terrible.
Other migrants described similarly bad conditions in Jizan Central Prison. “Ibrahim” said that he was a legal migrant working in Saudi Arabia, but that he travelled to Jizan to help his sister, whom Saudi authorities had detained after she crossed from Yemen illegally. Once in Jizan, authorities suspected him of human trafficking and arrested him, put him on trial, and sentenced him to two years in prison, a sentenced he partially served in Jizan Central Prison:
Jizan prison is so very tough…. You can be sleeping with [beside] someone who has tuberculosis, and if you ask an official to move you, they don’t care. They will beat you. You can’t change clothes, you have one set and that is it, sometimes the guards will illegally bring clothes and sell to you at night.
He also complained of overcrowding: “When you want to sleep you tell people and they all jostle to make some room, then you sleep for a bit but you wake up because everyone is jostling against each other.”
Most of the migrants said food was inadequate. Yonas described the situation in al-Dayer: “When they gave food 10 people would gather and fight over it. If you don’t have energy you won’t eat. The fight is over rice and bread.”
Detainees also said medical care was inadequate and that detainees with symptoms of tuberculosis (such as cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) were not isolated from other prisoners. Human Rights Watch interviewed three former detainees who were being treated for tuberculosis after being deported, two of whom said they were held with other detainees despite having symptoms of active tuberculosis.
Detainees described being beaten by Saudi prison guards when they requested medical care. Abdi said:
I was beaten once with a stick in Jizan that was like a piece of rebar covered in plastic. I was sick in prison and I used to vomit. They said, ‘why do you do that when people are eating?’ and then they beat me harshly and I told him [the guard], ‘Please kill me.’ He eventually stopped.
Ibrahim said he was also beaten when he requested medical care for tuberculosis:
[Prison guards] have a rule that you aren’t supposed to knock on the door [and disturb the guards]. When I got sick in the first six months and asked to go to the clinic, they just beat me with electric wires on the bottom of my feet. I kept asking so they kept beating.
Detainees said that the other primary impetus for beatings by guards was fighting between different ethnic groups of Ethiopians in detention, largely between ethnic Oromos, Amharas, and Tigrayans. Ethnic tensions are increasingly common back in Ethiopia.
Detainees said that conditions generally improved once they were transferred to Shmeisi Detention Center, near Jeddah, where they stayed only a few days before receiving temporary travel documents from Ethiopian consular authorities and deported to Ethiopia. The migrants charged with and convicted of crimes had no opportunity to consult legal counsel.
None of the migrants said they were given the opportunity to legally challenge their deportations, and Saudi Arabia has not established an asylum system under which migrants could apply for protection from deportation where there was a risk of persecution if they were sent back. Saudi Arabia is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention.
Deportation and Future Prospects
Humanitarian workers and diplomats told Human Rights Watch that since the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s deportation campaign, large numbers of Ethiopian deportees have been transported via special flights by Saudia Airlines to Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa and unloaded in a cargo area away from the main international terminal or at the domestic terminal. When Human Rights Watch visited in May, it appeared that the Saudi flights were suspended during the month of Ramadan, during which strict sunrise-to-sunset fasting is observed by Muslims. All interviewees who were deported in May said they had returned on regular Ethiopian Airlines commercial flights and disembarked at the main terminal with other passengers.
All of those deported said that they returned to Ethiopia with nothing but the clothes they were wearing, and that Saudi authorities had confiscated their mobile phones and in some cases shoes and belts. “After staying in Jeddah … they had us make a line and take off our shoes,” Abraham said. “Anything that could tie like a belt we had to leave, they wouldn’t let us take it. We were barefoot when we went to the airport.”
Deportees often have critical needs for assistance, including medical care, some for gunshot wounds. One returnee recovering from tuberculosis said that he did not have enough money to buy food and was going hungry. Abdi said that when he left for Saudi Arabia he weighed 64 kilograms but returned weighing only 47 or 48 kilograms.
Aid workers and diplomats familiar with migration issues in Ethiopia said that very little international assistance is earmarked for helping deportees from Saudi Arabia for medical care and shelter or money to return and reintegrate in their home villages.
Over 8 million people are in need of food assistance in Ethiopia, a country of over 100 million. It hosts over 920,000 refugees from neighboring countries and violence along ethnic lines produced over 2.4 internally displaced people in 2018, many of whom have now been returned.
The IOM registers migrants upon arrival in Ethiopia and to facilitate their return from Saudi Arabia. Several hours after their arrival and once registered, they leave the airport and must fend for themselves. Some said they had never been to Addis before.
In 2013 and 2014, Saudi Arabia conducted an expulsion campaign similar to the one that began in November 2017. The earlier campaign expelled about 163,000 Ethiopians, according to the IOM. A 2015 Human Rights Watch report found that migrants experienced serious abuses during detention and deportation, including attacks by security forces and private citizens in Saudi Arabia, and inadequate and abusive detention conditions. Human Rights Watch has also previously documented mistreatment of Ethiopian migrants by traffickers and government detention centers in Yemen.
Aid workers and diplomats said that inadequate funding to assist returning migrants is as a result of several factors, including a focus of many of the European funders on stemming migration to and facilitating returns from Europe, along with competing priorities and the low visibility of the issue compared with migration to Europe.
During previous mass returns from Saudi Arabia, there was more funding for reintegration and more international media attention in part because there was such a large influx in a short time, aid workers said.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Ethiopians deported from Saudi Arabia left with no support

Ethiopians abandoned after deportation from Saudi Arabia: HRW

ADDIS ABABA: Ethiopian migrants who braved death-defying land and sea journeys to find work in Saudi Arabia are being deported en masse with nothing but the clothes on their backs, Human Rights Watch said Thursday.
A report based on interviews with deportees in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa documents exploitation, trafficking and violence that begins from the moment the migrants set off across the Red Sea or Gulf of Aden to reach the Arabian Peninsula.
It says officials in Ethiopia, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have done little to protect migrants from abuses at the hands of traffickers and security forces.
And it says they have failed to ease the return of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians caught up in a large-scale Saudi deportation campaign that began in November 2017.
“Many Ethiopians who hoped for a better life in Saudi Arabia face unspeakable dangers along the journey, including death at sea, torture, and all manners of abuses,“ said Felix Horne, senior Africa researcher for Human Rights Watch.
“Saudi Arabia has summarily returned hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to Addis Ababa who have little to show for their journey except debts and trauma.”
Ethiopians have long looked to Saudi Arabia as an escape from poor economic prospects and state repression, hoping to find work despite not having legal status.
To get there, they board overcrowded boats that are at constant risk of sinking during sea crossings that can last up to 24 hours.
One survivor told Human Rights Watch that he saw smugglers throw dozens of migrants overboard.
“The boat was in trouble and the waves were hitting it. It was overloaded and about to sink so the [middlemen] picked some out and threw them into the sea, around 25,“ he said.
Once in Yemen, the migrants are preyed upon by traffickers who kidnap them to extort ransom payments. The traffickers include Ethiopians who carry out beatings and torture.
Crossing into Saudi Arabia requires evading border guards who frequently open fire, killing many would-be migrants.
“At the border there are many bodies rotting, decomposing,“ said one 26-year-old migrant. “It is like a graveyard.”
Despite the risks, up to half a million Ethiopians were in Saudi Arabia when officials there launched a crackdown on illegal migration in 2017, according to the International Organisation for Migration.
Around 10,000 Ethiopians on average were deported monthly between May 2017 and March 2019, and Human Rights Watch says deportations have continued.
While the international community provides Ethiopia with some resources to help migrants sent back from Europe, those returning from Saudi Arabia are mostly on their own.
A spokesman for Ethiopia’s foreign affairs ministry said Thursday that he was out of the country and could not comment. The Saudi government had also not issued any kind of response as of Thursday afternoon. — AFP

Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Ethiopian migrants braving Yemen's war CNN

Updated 1812 GMT (0212 HKT) February 18, 2019

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The Ethiopian migrants crossing Yemen's war to find a better life 02:56

"Ethiopia is broken," one of the young men says of his homeland. He is traveling in a group of four from Jimma, in southwest Ethiopia, each carrying nothing but a bottle of water.
    In the distance, the Bab al-Mandeb Strait, which separates the Horn of Africa from the Arabian Peninsula, glimmers in shades of dark blue, turquoise, and green.
    "Yemen," the man says, citing his next destination. "From Yemen I can go to Saudi Arabia for work and send money to my mother."
    About 20,000 migrants, mostly from Ethiopia, attempt the journey along this ancient and increasingly deadly route through Yemen's war zone each month, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM).
    They all risk deportation if they come to the attention of the police. Many are unaware of the war in Yemen, the bombs, bullets, mortars, and mines. They are unaware of the dangers of the crossing, and the bodies that wash up on Djibouti and Yemen's shores.

    A confluence of despair

    Obock is a small fishing village on the northern shores of the Gulf of Tadjoura.
    It is also the center of a confluence of despair.
    On the same sliver of shoreline where Ethiopian migrants depart for Yemen and what they hope will be a better life in Saudi Arabia, Yemeni refugees -- some fleeing Saudi-led attacks -- are arriving, haunted by memories of the nightmare they have just escaped.
    For many Yemenis, the hot, dusty and windswept Markazi Refugee Camp is their first stop.
    The Markazi Refugee Camp in Djibouti.
    Several rows of generator-powered white containers today have all but replaced the less sturdy United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees tents at this camp, which 1,300 or so Yemenis currently call home. The containers were a gift from the Saudi government -- an irony not lost on the refugees here.
    It was airstrikes from the Saudi-led coalition that forced Naghuib, his wife, and two children -- 6-year-old Rasha and 8-year-old Mohammed -- to flee.
    In Yemen, Naghuib's family lived near Khokha, a small village on the shores of the Red Sea. Over the past four years, Naghuib says 25 people from his rebel-held village have been killed, including neighbors and relatives. Intense fighting between the Saudi-led coalition and Iranian-backed Houthi fighters has gripped the country since war broke out in early 2015.
    Naghuib says homes, schools, and mosques in his village have been destroyed. As the situation worsened, sometimes his family could not find food, he adds. When there was a lull in the fighting, he and his family decided to make a run for it.
    Naghuib, and others interviewed for this story, only wanted their first names used because of the sensitivity of their situations.
    A Yemeni man takes a picture of a destroyed petrol station that was hit by an airstrike in Yemen's capital Sanaa on May 27, 2018.
    "We came in a small fishing boat," he says. "We were lucky the water was smooth. It took us three hours."
    Nearly 40,000 Yemenis have fled to Djibouti since 2015, according to UNHCR. While the Djiboutian government has been praised for recent reforms, including granting refugees permission to work inside the country, the vast majority of Yemenis that arrived here have moved on to other countries.
    Many Yemeni refugees have relatives in the United States, and according to UNHCR nearly 15,000 have moved from Djibouti to the US since the conflict began.
    "We came for their future," Naghuib adds, pointing to his children. "We'll go anywhere they take us."
    Naghuib remembers encountering migrants from Ethiopia who were walking through Yemen.
    "We would say, 'Where are you going? There is a war.' Most of them didn't speak Arabic. We say, 'Don't go.' They say, 'God is with us,'" he adds.
    Another Yemeni refugee, Abdulrahman, who has just arrived at the camp, says he had similar encounters with migrants back home. "Their only thought is to get to Saudi," he says. "We try to tell them there are mines on the road. They don't know what it's like."
    Abdulrahman knows the dangers only too well. He says he lost his wife and daughter to a mortar bomb around eight months ago. The day after he arrived in Djibouti, he found out that his eldest son, who was fighting with the Houthis, had been killed.
    "He just got married. That's my last memory of him," says Abdulrahman, as his voice starts to shake. He wipes his eyes and turns away.

    Unaware of the Yemen war

    A short drive from the Markazi Refugee Camp, dozens of male Ethiopian migrants are sheltering from the intense midday sun and the near-constant wind, under trees sparsely scattered across the barren landscape.
    Under the largest tree, one group of men says they have been waiting here for their smuggler for four days, eating only rice.
    Ethiopian migrants in Djibouti waiting to make the ocean crossing to Yemen, from where they will transit to Saudi Arabia. They say they are unaware there is a war in Yemen.
    The migrant route from Ethiopia to Saudi Arabia is a well-trodden one. An Ethiopian migrant called Ali says that his relatives made this same journey years ago, before the war. Many of the men have similar stories of relatives who "made it" years ago.
    But when asked about the war in Yemen, the men shrug. They had been unaware of the dangers ahead.
    Since 2017, the UNHCR has been running a public awareness campaign about the Yemen war, through music videos and billboards in five languages. But staffers admit that it has yet to make it here to Obock.
    A group of men wait for smugglers to arrive to take them across the Bab al-Mandeb Strait to Yemen.
    In Ethiopia, many have access to the internet on their mobile phones -- but in their desperation they chose hope over fear of what lies ahead.
    "We don't have a choice," says one migrant preparing to cross. "We have to be patient, we have to leave it up to God."

    A cheap crossing

    Finally, at dusk the Djiboutian smugglers arrive. Using long sticks, they herd the men under the trees into a single file like cattle.
    One of the smugglers, his cheek full of khat -- a leaf chewed in the Horn of Africa for its stimulant effect -- says they are moving the group to another location, a crevasse where they will join hundreds of other migrants waiting to make the same journey.
    Five days later, the IOM reported that two boats carrying migrants capsized off Djibouti's shores. There were 16 survivors, and 30 bodies recovered but a total of 128 were estimated dead.
    Ethiopian migrants walking to their next destination.
    Each migrant making this crossing pays a few hundred dollars.
    That's a fraction of what it can cost to leave Africa via the Mediterranean route -- one reason why Ethiopian migrants by the hundreds still attempt this route each night.
    The distance is another factor: the majority can walk the thousand or so kilometers from their homes in Ethiopia to Obock, the launching point across the strait and toward the Gulf.
    They take those first steps, they say, because of an overwhelming feeling of hopelessness at home.
    Many Ethiopians here say they come from the Oromia region, which is home to an ethnic group historically at odds with the central government, and where more than a million people have been displaced because of political violence.
    A series of devastating floods and severe droughts -- the worst in decades -- has also pushed the total number of displaced inside Ethiopia up to almost three million people.

    Lucky escape?

    For the 500 mostly Ethiopians at the IOM transit center in Obock, repatriation is the grim fate awaiting them.
    "My parents are poor ... (They have) no money. I am the eldest," says Ali. He is just 13. He and the other unaccompanied minors huddle in the same room, opting to sit on the cool floor rather than the foam mattresses lined along the walls. The older men congregate in the courtyard.
    Ali says he didn't know about the war in Yemen and the five other boys with him say the same.
    The road to Obock, Djibouti
    Most Ethiopians who attempt this journey are young men but the IOM transit center does have a women's section, currently home to about a dozen people.
    Safia, a mother in her 20s, left Ethiopia with a group of her friends. Exhausted and dehydrated when she arrived after walking for days, Safia still has an IV needle in her hand.
      "I wanted to go to Saudi but when I got here and saw how dangerous it was, I changed my mind. But some of them kept going," she says.
      Safia doesn't know if her friends made it or not. She has a two-year-old son back home, who she cries for every day.